The following list describes the 37 native orchid species in Manitoba, including scientific name, common name, Conservation Data Centre rank, blooming time, habitat and additional details for each plant.
For an explanation of Conservation Data Centre Ranks, please check the CDC’s website.
**These orchids are listed as endangered under Manitoba’s Endangered Species Act.
Genus Arethusa Linnaeus
Genus Calopogon R. Brown
Genus Calypso Salisbury
Calypso bulbosa (Linnaeus) Oakes var. americana (R.Brown) Luer
Common Name: Fairy-slipper, Calypso
Blooming Time: Mid-May to mid-June in the south, to mid-July in the north.
Habitat: Coniferous forests; especially those underlain by limestone in the north, or moist and dominated by cedar in the south.
Genus Corallorhiza Gagnebin – Coral-roots
Genus Cypripedium Linnaeus – Lady’s-slippers
Cypripedium parviflorum Salisbury var. makasin (Farwell) Sheviak
Common Name: Northern small yellow lady’s-slipper
Blooming Time: Late May to late June
Habitat: Moist deciduous and mixed forests, coniferous bogs, and tall-grass and mixed-grass prairies.
Genus Dactylorhiza [formerly Coeloglossum Hartman]
Dactylorhiza viridis (Linnaeus) A.M.Bateman et al. [formerly Coeloglossum viride (Linnaeus) Hartman]
Common Name: Long-bracted frog-orchid
Blooming Time: Early June to mid-July
Habitat: Mixed forests, tall-grass and mixed-grass prairie, and disturbed areas.
Genus Epipactis Zinn, Cat.
Genus Galearis Raf. [formerly Amerorchis Hultén]
Galearis rotundifolia (Banks ex Pursh) R.M. Bateman [formerly Amerorchis rotundifolia (Banks ex Pursh) Hultén]
Common Name: Small round-leaved orchid
Blooming Time: Early to late June in the south, to mid-July in the north.
Habitat: Moist coniferous forests and bogs, often in sphagnum moss; also wet tundra.
Genus Goodyera R. Brown – Rattlesnake-orchids
Genus Liparis Richard
Genus Malaxis Solander ex Swartz
Genus Neottia [formerly Listera] – Twayblades
Neottia auriculata Wiegand. [formerly Listera auiculata Weigand]
Common Name: Auricled twayblade
Note: This plant is included for Manitoba because a herbarium specimen was collected in 1954 near Singush Lake in Duck Mountain Provincial Park. Although the specimen was verified as correctly identified this species has not been observed in Manitoba since. The nearest populations occur along the north shore of Lake Superior in Ontario and the extreme northeastern Minnesota. If you should find this orchid please let us know!
Description: The plant may be 10-20 cm tall, with two, opposite leaves located near the middle of the stem, ovate-elliptical, 3-5.5 cm long and 2-4 cm wide. A prominent midrib forms a slight keel below. The inflorescence is a dense terminal raceme of green flowers, 7-16 flowered; each flower subtended by a minute lanceolate bract. The scape of the inflorescence is slightly hairy. The lip is oblong and narrowed in the middle; 7-11 mm long and 3-5 mm wide, the apex divided to form two teeth and the base forming two auricles which recurve back around the base of column.
Blooming Time: Mid June to late July (?)
Habitat: Sandy soil on moss under alders along small streams.
Additional Information: This species is most similar to N. convallarioides, but can be separated from N. convallarioides by the shape of the labellum. The auricles at the base of the labellum of L. auriculata are large and reflexed, and wrap back around the ovary. FNA RBG WI US
Photos by Peter Dziuk
Genus Platanthera Richard – Rein-orchids, Bog-orchids, Fringed-orchids
Platanthera huronensis (Nuttall) Lindley [formerly Platanthera hyperborea (Linnaeus) Lindley var. huronensis (Nuttall) Luer]
Common Name: Tall green bog-orchid
Blooming Time: Mid-June to mid-August
Habitat: Moist coniferous forests, sedge meadows, fens, and ditches.