Manitoba Orchids

The following list includes the native orchid species known in Manitoba along with the scientific name, common name, Conservation Data Centre rank, blooming-time, habitat and additional information for each plant.

For an explanation of Conservation Data Centre Ranks, please click on this link: gov.mb.ca/conservation/cdc/consranks.html

**These orchids are listed as Endangered under Manitoba’s Endangered Species Act.

Genus Arethusa Linnaeus

Arethusa bulbosa (Linnaeus)

Common Name: Dragon’s-mouth

Rank: S2

Blooming Time: Mid-June to early July

Habitat: Sphagnum hummocks in coniferous bogs and fens

Additional Information: FNA RBG WI US

Genus Calopogon R. Brown

Calopogon tuberosus (Linnaeus)
Britton et al. var.  tuberosus

Common Name: Grass-pink

Rank: S2

Blooming Time: Early to late July

Habitat: Coniferous bogs and fens; often under an open canopy of black spruce, tamarack, or cedar.

Additional Information: FNA RBG WI US

Genus Calypso Salisbury

Calypso bulbosa (Linnaeus) Oakes var. americana (R.Brown) Luer

Common Name: Fairy-slipper, Calypso

Rank: S4

Blooming Time: Mid-May to mid-June in the south, to mid-July in the north.

Habitat: Coniferous forests; especially those underlain by limestone in the north, or moist and dominated by cedar in the south.

Additional Information: FNA RBG WI US

Genus Corallorhiza Gagnebin – Coral-roots

Corallorhiza maculata Rafinesque  var. maculata

Common Name: Spotted coral-root

Rank: N/A

Blooming Time: Mid-June to mid-July

Habitat: Mixed forests and dry coniferous forests.

Additional Information: FNA RBG WI US

Corallorhiza maculata Rafinesque
var. occidentalis (Lindley) Ames

Common Name: Western spotted coral-root (variety)

Rank: S4

Blooming Time: Mid-June to mid-July

Habitat: Mixed forests and dry coniferous forests.

Additional Information: FNA US MN

Corallorhiza striata Lindley var. striata

Common Name: Striped coral-root

Rank: S3S4

Blooming Time: Late May to early July

Habitat: Mixed and coniferous forests

Additional Information: FNA RBG WI US

Corallorhiza trifida Chatelain

Common Name: Early coral-root

Rank: S5

Blooming Time: Late May to mid-June in the south, and to mid-July in the north

Habitat: Moist forests in the south to moist open tundra in the north

Additional Information: FNA RBG WI US

Genus Cypripedium Linnaeus – Lady’s-slippers

Cypripedium acaule Aiton

Common Name: Moccasin-flower; pink lady’s-slipper; stemless lady’s-slipper

Rank: S3S4

Blooming Time: Late May and June

Habitat: Mature jack-pine forests, granite outcroppings; tops of hummocks in sphagnum bogs.

Additional Information: FNA RBG WI US

Cypripedium arietinum R. Brown

Common Name: Ram’s-head lady’s-slipper

Rank: S2S3

Blooming Time: Late May to late June

Habitat: Coniferous forests and bogs.

Additional Information: FNA RBG WI US

Cypripedium candidum** Muhlenberg ex Willdenow

Common Name: Small white lady’s-slipper

Rank: S1

Blooming Time: Late May to early June

Habitat: Tall-grass and mixed-grass prairie, grassy roadside ditches.

Additional Information: FNA RBG WI US

Cypripedium parviflorum Salisbury var. makasin (Farwell) Sheviak 

Common Name: Northern small yellow lady’s-slipper

Rank: S5?

Blooming Time: Late May to late June

Habitat: Moist deciduous and mixed forests, coniferous bogs, and tall-grass and mixed-grass prairies.

Additional Information: FNA RBG WI US

Cypripedium parviflorum var. pubescens

Common Name: Large yellow lady’s-slipper (variety)

Rank: S5

Blooming Time: Late May to mid-July

Habitat: Ditches, deciduous and mixed forests, coniferous bogs, and tall-grass and mixed-grass prairie.

Additional Information: FNA RBG WI US

Cypripedium passerinum Richardson

Common Name: Sparrow’s-egg lady’s-slipper; Franklin’s lady’s-slipper

Rank: S4

Blooming Time: Mid-June to late July

Habitat: Gravelly or sandy soil; often beside lakes or streams.

Additional Information: FNA RBG US

Cypripedium reginae Walter

Common Name: Showy lady’s-slipper

Rank: S4

Blooming Time: Late June to mid-July

Habitat: Ditches, coniferous bogs, fens, and mixed forests. Preference for wet, calcareous areas.

Additional Information: FNA RBG WI US

Genus Dactylorhiza [formerly Coeloglossum Hartman]

Dactylorhiza viridis (Linnaeus) A.M.Bateman et al. [formerly Coeloglossum viride (Linnaeus) Hartman]

Common Name: Long-bracted frog-orchid

Rank: S4

Blooming Time: Early June to mid-July

Habitat: Mixed forests, tall-grass and mixed-grass prairie, and disturbed areas.

Additional Information: FNA RBG WI US

Genus Epipactis Zinn, Cat.

Epipactis helleborine (Linnaeus) Crantz

Common Name: Broad-leaved helleborine

Rank: SNA

Blooming Time: Mid-July to mid-August

Habitat: Moist riverbanks, deciduous woods.

Additional Information: FNA RBG WI US

Genus Galearis Raf. [formerly Amerorchis Hultén]

Galearis rotundifolia (Banks ex Pursh) R.M. Bateman [formerly Amerorchis rotundifolia (Banks ex Pursh) Hultén]

Common Name: Small round-leaved orchid

Rank: S5

Blooming Time: Early to late June in the south, to mid-July in the north.

Habitat: Moist coniferous forests and bogs, often in sphagnum moss; also wet tundra.

Additional Information: FNA RBG WI US

Genus Goodyera R. Brown – Rattlesnake-orchids

Goodyera repens (Linnaeus) R.Brown

Common Name: Lesser rattlesnake-orchid

Rank: S4S5

Blooming Time: Mid-July to mid-August

Habitat: Coniferous forests and bogs; also drier forests, especially in the north.

Additional Information: FNA RBG WI US

Goodyera tesselata Loddiges

Common Name: Checkered rattlesnake-orchid; Tessellated rattlesnake-orchid

Rank: S2

Blooming Time: Mid-July to late August

Habitat: Coniferous forests, especially mature jack pine.

Additional Information: FNA RBG WI US

Genus Liparis Richard

Liparis loeselii (Linnaeus) Richard

Common Name: Loesel’s twayblade

Rank: S3S4

Blooming Time: Late June to late July

Habitat: Fens, sedge meadows, ditches, and borrow pits.

Additional Information: FNA RBG WI US

Genus Malaxis Solander ex Swartz

Malaxis monophyllos (Linnaeus) Swartz var. brachypoda (Gray) Morris & Eames

Common Name: White adder’s-mouth

Rank: S2?

Blooming Time: Early to late July

Habitat: Coniferous forests and bogs, on sphagnum hummocks.

Additional Information: FNA RBG WI US

Malaxis paludosa (Linnaeus) Swartz

Common Name: Bog adder’s-mouth

Rank: S1?

Blooming Time: Early to late July

Habitat: Wet, acidic coniferous swamps and bogs, on sphagnum hummocks.

Additional Information: FNA RBG US

Malaxis unifolia Michaux

Common Name: Green adder’s-mouth

Rank: S2?

Blooming Time: Early July to early August

Habitat: Coniferous forests and bogs; also jack-pine forests associated with moccasin-flowers.

Additional Information: FNA RBG WI US

Genus Neottia [formerly Listera] – Twayblades

Neottia borealis (Morong) Szlachetka [formerly Listera borealis Morong]

Common Name: Northern twayblade

Rank: S2

Blooming Time: Early June to mid-July

Habitat: Coniferous forests, especially white spruce.

Additional Information: FNA RBG US

Neottia cordata (L.) Rich. [formerly Listera cordata (Linnaeus) R. Brown var. cordata

Common Name: Heart-leaved twayblade

Rank: S4?

Blooming Time: Early June to mid-July

Habitat: Coniferous forests and bogs, often on sphagnum hummocks.

Additional Information: FNA RBG WI US

Neottia auriculata Wiegand. [formerly Listera auiculata Weigand]

Common Name: Auricled twayblade

Rank: S1

Note: This plant is included for Manitoba because a herbarium specimen was collected in 1954 near Singush Lake in Duck Mountain Provincial Park. Although the specimen was verified as correctly identified this species has not been observed in Manitoba since. The nearest populations occur along the north shore of Lake Superior in Ontario and the extreme northeastern Minnesota. If you should find this orchid please let us know!

Description: The plant may be 10-20 cm tall, with two, opposite leaves located near the middle of the stem, ovate-elliptical, 3-5.5 cm long and 2-4 cm wide. A prominent midrib forms a slight keel below. The inflorescence is a dense terminal raceme of green flowers, 7-16 flowered; each flower subtended by a minute lanceolate bract. The scape of the inflorescence is slightly hairy. The lip is oblong and narrowed in the middle; 7-11 mm long and 3-5 mm wide, the apex divided to form two teeth and the base forming two auricles which recurve back around the base of column.

Blooming Time: Mid June to late July (?)

Habitat: Sandy soil on moss under alders along small streams.

Additional Information: This species is most similar to N. convallarioides, but can be separated from N. convallarioides by the shape of the labellum. The auricles at the base of the labellum of L. auriculata are large and reflexed, and wrap back around the ovary. FNA RBG WI US

Photos by Peter Dziuk

Genus Platanthera Richard – Rein-orchids, Bog-orchids, Fringed-orchids

Platanthera aquilonis Sheviak [formerly Platanthera hyperborea (Linnaeus) Lindley var. hyperborea]

Common Name: Northern green bog-orchid

Rank: S4S5

Blooming Time: Mid-June to mid-August

Habitat: Moist coniferous forests, sedge meadows, fens, and ditches.

Additional Information: FNA RBG WI US

Platanthera dilatata (Pursh) Lindley var. dilatata

Common Name: White bog-orchid

Rank: S3S4

Blooming Time: Early July to mid-August

Habitat: Fens.

Additional Information: FNA RBG WI US

Platanthera hookeri (Torrey ex Gray) Lindley

Common Name: Hooker’s rein-orchid

Rank: S2S3

Blooming Time: Early June to mid-July

Habitat: Well-drained coniferous forests, especially jack pine.

Additional Information: FNA RBG WI US

Platanthera huronensis (Nuttall) Lindley [formerly Platanthera hyperborea (Linnaeus) Lindley var. huronensis (Nuttall) Luer]

Common Name: Tall green bog-orchid

Rank: S4S5

Blooming Time: Mid-June to mid-August

Habitat: Moist coniferous forests, sedge meadows, fens, and ditches.

Additional Information: FNA RBG US

Platanthera lacera (Michaux) G. Don

Common Name: Ragged fringed-orchid

Rank: S1S2

Blooming Time: Early to late July

Habitat: Coniferous bogs and abandoned peat fields.

Additional Information: FNA RBG WI US

Platanthera obtusata (Banks ex Pursh) Lindley

Common Name: Blunt-leaf rein-orchid

Rank: S5

Blooming Time: Mid-June to mid-July

Habitat: Most types of moist forest; also moist tundra.

Additional Information: FNA RBG WI US

Platanthera orbiculata (Pursh) Lindley

Common Name: Round-leaved rein-orchid, Pad-leaved rein-orchid

Rank: S3

Blooming Time: Mid-June to late July

Habitat: Moist coniferous forests.

Additional Information: FNA RBG WI US

Platanthera praeclara** Sheviak and Bowles

Common Name: Western prairie fringed-orchid

Rank: S1

Blooming Time: Late June to mid-July

Habitat: Tall-grass prairie.

Additional Information: FNA US photo MN

Platanthera psycodes (Linnaeus) Lindley

Common Name: Small purple fringed-orchid

Rank: S1

Blooming Time: Early July to early August

Habitat: Moist deciduous forests and ditches.

Additional Information: FNA RBG WI US

Genus Pogonia Jussieu

Pogonia ophioglossoides (Linnaeus) Ker-Gawler

Common Name: Rose pogonia

Rank: S1

Blooming Time: Late June to mid-July

Habitat: Fens and moist disturbed areas.

Additional Information: FNA RBG WI US

Genus Spiranthes Richard – Ladies’-tresses

Spiranthes lacera (Rafinesque) Rafinesque var. lacera

Common Name: Slender ladies’-tresses

Rank: S3S4

Blooming Time: Early July to early August

Habitat: Sandy jack-pine forests or granite outcroppings, often together with moccasin-flowers.

Additional Information: FNA RBG WI US

Spiranthes magnicamporum** Sheviak

Common Name: Great Plains ladies’-tresses

Rank: S1S2

Blooming Time: Late August to late September

Habitat: Tall-grass prairie and adjacent ditches.

Additional Information: FNA RBG WI US

Spiranthes romanzoffiana Chamisso

Common Name: Hooded ladies’-tresses

Rank: S5

Blooming Time: Mid-July to late August

Habitat: Coniferous bogs, fens; tall-grass prairie; disturbed areas like ditches and borrow pits.

Additional Information: FNA RBG WI US