Native Orchids of Manitoba


Scientific Name Common Name Rank Blooming-time More Information
Amerorchis rotundifolia (Banks ex Pursh) Hultén
[formerly Orchis rotundifolia]
Small round-leaved orchid S5 June and July FNA RBG WI US photo
Arethusa bulbosa Linnaeus Dragon's-mouth S2 June and July FNA RBG WI US photo
Calopogon tuberosus (Linnaeus) Britton et al. var. tuberosus
[formerly Calopogon pulchellus]
Grass-pink S2 mid-July to early-Aug FNA RBG WI US photo
Calypso bulbosa (Linnaeus) Oakes
var. americana (R.Brown) Luer
Fairy-slipper; Calypso S4 early-May to mid-June FNA RBG WI US photo
Corallorhiza maculata Rafinesque var. maculata Spotted coralroot n/a mid-June to early-July FNA RBG WI US photo
Corallorhiza maculata Rafinesque
var. occidentalis (Lindley) Ames
Western spotted coralroot (variety) S4 mid-June to early-July FNA US photo
Corallorhiza striata Lindley var. striata Striped coralroot S3? mid-June to mid-July FNA RBG WI US photo
Corallorhiza trifida Chatelain Early coralroot S5 late-May to early-June FNA RBG WI US photo
Cypripedium acaule Aiton Moccasin-flower lady's-slipper;
Pink lady's-slipper;
Stemless lady's-slipper
S4 late-May and June FNA RBG WI US photo
Cypripedium arietinum R.Brown Ram's-head lady's-slipper S2? May and June FNA RBG WI US photo
Cypripedium candidum Muhlenberg ex Willdenow Small white lady's-slipper S1 late-May to early-June FNA RBG WI US photo
Cypripedium parviflorum Salisbury
var. makasin (Farwell) Sheviak
[formerly Cypripedium calceolus var. parviflorum]
Northern small yellow lady's-slipper S4 May and June FNA RBG WI US photo
Cypripedium parviflorum Salisbury
var. pubescens (Willdenow) Knight
[formerly Cypripedium calceolus var. pubescens]
Large yellow lady's-slipper (variety) S5 June and July FNA RBG WI US photo
Cypripedium passerinum Richardson Sparrow-egg lady's-slipper;
Franklin's lady's-slipper
S4 June and July FNA RBG US photo
Cypripedium reginae Walter Showy lady's-slipper S3? late-June to early-July FNA RBG WI US photo
Dactylorhiza viridis (Linnaeus) A.M.Bateman et al.
[Coeloglossum viride (Linnaeus) Hartman]
Long-bracted frog-orchid S5 June July and Aug FNA RBG WI US photo
Epipactis helleborine (Linnaeus) Crantz Broad-leaved helleborine SRE? late-July and Aug FNA RBG WI US photo
Goodyera repens (Linnaeus) R.Brown Lesser rattlesnake-orchid S5 July Aug and Sept FNA RBG WI US photo
Goodyera tesselata Loddiges Checkered rattlesnake-orchid;
Tessellated rattlesnake-orchid
S2 June July and Aug FNA RBG WI US photo
Liparis loeselii (Linnaeus) Richard Loesel's false-twayblade S3? July and Aug FNA RBG WI US photo
Listera auriculata Wiegand Auricled twayblade S1 n/a FNA RBG WI US
Listera borealis Morong Northern twayblade S2 early-June to early-July FNA RBG US photo
Listera cordata (Linnaeus) R.Brown var. cordata Heart-leaved twayblade S4? July and Aug FNA RBG WI US photo
Malaxis brachypoda (A.Gray) Fernald
[Malaxis monophyllos (Linnaeus) Swartz
var. brachypoda (A.Gray) Morris & Eames]
White adder's-mouth S2? June July and Aug FNA RBG WI US photo
Malaxis paludosa (Linnaeus) Swartz Bog adder's-mouth S1 July and Aug FNA RBG US photo
Malaxis unifolia Michaux Green adder's-mouth S2? July and Aug FNA RBG WI US photo
Platanthera aquilonis Sheviak
[formerly Platanthera hyperborea var. hyperborea]
Northern green bog-orchid;
Leafy green orchid
S5 mid-June to mid-July FNA RBG WI US photo
Platanthera dilatata (Pursh) Lindley var. dilatata White bog-orchid;
Leafy white orchid
S4 June July Aug and Sept FNA RBG WI US photo
Platanthera hookeri (Torrey ex Gray) Lindley Hooker's rein-orchid S2 June July Aug and Sept FNA RBG WI US photo
Platanthera huronensis (Nuttall) Lindley
[formerly Platanthera hyperborea var. huronensis]
Tall green bog-orchid;
Tall leafy green orchid
n/a mid-June to mid-July FNA RBG US photo
Platanthera hyperborea Sheviak N/A N/A June and July N/A N/A N/A N/A photo
Platanthera lacera (Michaux) G.Don Ragged fringed-orchid S2 July FNA RBG WI US photo
Platanthera obtusata (Banks ex Pursh) Lindley Blunt-leaf rein-orchid S5 June and July FNA RBG WI US photo
Platanthera orbiculata (Pursh) Lindley Round-leaved rein-orchid;
Pad-leaved rein-orchid
S3 June and July FNA RBG WI US photo
Platanthera praeclara Sheviak & Bowles Western prairie fringed-orchid S1 late-June to early-July FNA US photo
Platanthera psycodes (Linnaeus) Lindley Small purple fringed-orchid S1 mid-July to early-Aug FNA RBG WI US photo
Pogonia ophioglossoides (Linnaeus) Ker-Gawler Rose pogonia S1 late-June to mid-July FNA RBG WI US photo
Spiranthes lacera (Rafinesque) Rafinesque var. lacera Slender ladies'-tresses S4? late-June July and early-Aug FNA RBG WI US photo
Spiranthes magnicamporum Sheviak Great-plains ladies'-tresses S1? late-Aug and Sept FNA RBG WI US photo
Spiranthes romanzoffiana Chamisso Hooded ladies'-tresses S5 July and Aug FNA RBG WI US photo

Note: all our species of Dactylorhiza and Platanthera, were formerly included in the genus Habenaria.

Note: this list has 15 genera, 38 species, 39 varieties.  The Rank column, from Manitoba Conservation Data Centre: database: reports monocots ranges from S1=most-rare to S5=least-rare, and the letter-codes are supposedly explained in Manitoba Conservation Data Centre: database: status ranking (except they use without explanation "E", "F", and "R";  from emails and from other CDC publications: "R" is for reported, "F" for falsely reported, and "E" for exotic or non-native).  The Blooming-time column has been compiled by Doris Ames, based on observations in Manitoba by herself and others such as Ian Ward and Lorne Heshka.  In the More-Information column, FNA is short for Flora of North America, RBG for Orchid Society of the Royal Botanical Gardens, WI for Jeff Hapeman's Orchids of Wisconsin at University of Wisconsin, and US for US Department of Agriculture Plants Database.

Our previous list by Dr.K.Johnson had 35 species, 37 varieties, plus 2 hybrids;  it lacked Epipactis helleborine,  had the 2 species Platanthera aquilonis and P.huronensis lumped as P.hyperborea;  below the rank of species, it had one additional variety of yellow lady's-slipper, one fewer of spotted coralroot;  it used older names in several cases and had other minor differences.

Note: the Manitoba-CDC also has a record of Spiranthes cernua (Nodding ladies'-tresses) in the province with a rank of SR;  where R means the report has been neither accepted nor rejected.